Development of Education and Literature Work During The Period of Sultan Zainul Abidin In Kashmir

Authors

  • Dr. Ram Ratan Sahu
  • Mujeebul Haq

Keywords:

Sanskrit, Kashmiri, Persian, Literature, Education.

Abstract

The present article is an attempt to highlight the development of education and literature work during the period of Sultan Zainul Abidin in Kashmir. Zainul Abidin was one of the most enlightened Muslim kings of Kashmir. He was a great linguist, scholar and a poet. He was proficient in Persian, Sanskrit, Arabic and Tibetan and a munificent patron of learning poetry music and painting. He caused the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Rajatranagini to be translated from Sanskrit into Persian. He also had some Persian works translated into Sanskrit. He extended patronage to learning and as a result there was a great influx of scholars and men of learning from other countries. The Sultan established numerous schools, colleges, and a residential university. He spends huge sums in building a big royal library and sent his men to India, Persia, Iraq and Turkistan to procure books and manuscripts. The literacy activities of the king encouraged all the classes of people to receive education. The Muslim period is believed to be a glorious period in the field of education. During this period Persian language flourished in the valley due to presence of Sedates and Sayyedds who came to Kashmir from central Asia for the purpose of proselytization. With the result Persian language became the language of court. New Maktabs (Arabic word for elementary school) and Patshals (Hindi word for elementary school) were opened. Where Persian and Sanskrit were taught. Srivara says, “even women, cooks and porters were poets, and the books composed by them exist to this day in every house. If the king be a sea of learning and partial to merit, the people too became so. The meritorious king Zainul Abidin, for the purpose of earning merit built extensive lodging house for the students and the voices of the student’s studying logic and grammar arose from these houses. The king helped the students by providing teachers, books, houses, food and money and he extended the limits of learning to all branches Even the families which never dreamt of learning produced men who through the favour of the king became known for their erudition There was not a branch of learning of arts or literature or fine arts which was not studied”.

                 He was surrounded by a galaxy of learned men, local as well as foreigners. These included, among other, Mulla Ahmed, his poet latureate, Sayyid Mohammad Rumi, Qazi Sayyid Ali Shirazi, Sayyid Mohammad Sistani, Moulana Kabir, Mulla nadiri, Sayyid Mohammad Madain, Jonaraja, Srivara, Yodhabhatta, Bodha Butt, Mulla Hafiz, Mulla Qazi Jamal-ul-Din, Sayyid hussain Qummi Razavi, Maulana Qazi Mir Ali Bakhari, Notho Soma Pandith and Malik Haidar Chadaura.as Zainul Abidin was found of holding frequent discussions with these schoolars, he made arragements for their residence at the capital of Nowshahra itself. Grants of land and some other privileges also were liberally bestowed on them. Jonaraja writes, “possessed of merit and appreciating merit in others, the king encouraged learning, and the stream of learning which had run down like a canal which breaks through a gap, now began to flow smoothly one more”.

References

Anonymous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, Eng. Tr. by K. N. Pandit, Firma KLM Private Limited Culcutta, 1991, P.29.

J. C. Dutt, Kings of Kashmira, Eng. Tr. of Rajatrangini of Kalhana Pandita, Vol. 3, Rpt. Low Price Publications New Delhi, 1990, P.181.

Ibid. P.181.

N. K. Zutshi, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir, Lucknow, 1976. P.187.

Ibid. P. 189.

J. C. Dutt, Kings of Kashmira, Eng. Tr. of Rajatrangini of Kalhana Pandita, Vol. 3, Rpt. Low Price Publications New Delhi, 1990, P. 145.

N. K. Zutshi, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir, Lucknow, 1976. P. 189.

J. C. Dutt, Kings of Kashmira, Eng. Tr. of Rajatrangini of Kalhana Pandita, Vol. 3, Rpt. Low Price Publications New Delhi, 1990, P. 136.

Ibid. P. 136.

Ibid. P. 136.

N. K. Zutshi, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir, Lucknow, 1976. P. 190-191.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 447.

G. M. D. Sufi, Islamic Culture in Kashmir, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1979,

P. 75.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 447.

Ibid. P. 447.

Anonymous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, Eng. Tr. by K. N. Pandit, Firma KLM Private Limited Culcutta, 1991, PP. 72-73.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 485.

G. M. D. Sufi, Islamic Culture in Kashmir, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1979, P. 77.

Anonymous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, Eng. Tr. by K. N. Pandit, Firma KLM Private Limited Culcutta, 1991,P. 73.

N. K. Zutshi, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir, Lucknow, 1976. P. 188.

Anonymous, Baharistan-i-Shahi, Eng. Tr. by K. N. Pandit, Firma KLM Private Limited Culcutta, 1991,P. 73.

Ibid. P.73.

N. K. Zutshi, Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir, Lucknow, 1976. P. 191.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 397.

Ibid.P.402.

Ibid. P. 421.

Ibid. P. 423.

Ibid. PP. 402-404.

Ibid. P. 404.

Ibid. P. 404.

Ibid. PP. 385-386.

Ibid. P. 398.

Ibid. P. 388.

Ibid. P. 398.

Ibid. PP. 399-400.

Mohibul Hasan, Kashmir under the Sultans, Edt. by H. N. Rafiabadi, Gulshan Publishers Srinagar, 2002, P. 136.

P.N. K. Bamzai, A History of Kashmir, 3rd Edition, Gulshan Publishers Srinagar, 2008, PP. 328-29.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 348.

Mohibul Hasan, Kashmir under the Sultans, Edt. by H. N. Rafiabadi, Gulshan Publishers Srinagar, 2002, PP. 136-137.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 348.

J.C. Dutt, Kings of Kashmira, Eng. Tr. of Rajatrangini of Kalhana Pandita, Vol. 3, Rpt. Low Price Publications New Delhi, 1990, P. 144.

Ibid. PP. 144-145.

Mohibul Hasan, Kashmir under the Sultans, Edt. by H. N. Rafiabadi, Gulshan Publishers Srinagar, 2002, P. 138.

G. M. D. Sufi, Kashir (A History of Kashmir), Vol. 2nd, Light and Life Publishers New Delhi, 1974. P. 577.

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Published

30-03-2017

How to Cite

Dr. Ram Ratan Sahu, & Mujeebul Haq. (2017). Development of Education and Literature Work During The Period of Sultan Zainul Abidin In Kashmir. Research Inspiration: An International Multidisciplinary E-Journal, 2(II), 45–55. Retrieved from http://researchinspiration.com/index.php/ri/article/view/59

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