Effect Of Physical Exercise Programme On Object Control Skills In Preschool Children
Keywords:Physical exercise, Object control skills, preschool
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of physical exercise programme on object control skills in preschool children. Thirty children (3- 5 years old) from Trivandrum district of Kerala were selected randomly and assigned to two groups, an experimental group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Both the groups were tested in Gross Motor Development -2 Ulrich, 2000 before and after twelve weeks of training period. The experimental group underwent physical exercise programme three times a week for twelve weeks. Paired t- test and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) revealed significant improvement in the experimental group in object control skills while no changes were seen in the control group. It may be concluded that physical exercise programme introduced in early childhood can improve object control skills.
Bailey, D. (1976). The growing child and the need for physical activity. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Elliot, G.M. (1966). The effects of exercise on the structural growth. Journal of Canadian Association, HPER, 36, 21.
Cotman, C. W. and Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 6, 295-301.
Feldman, S. R. (1997). Development across the Life span.USA: Prentice Hall Inc.
Gabbard, C., Blanc, B.L. & Lowy, S. (1987).Physical Education for Children: Building the foundation. New Jersey: A Division of Simon & Schuster.
Gabbard, C. P, Cacola, P., & Rodrigues, L. P., (2008). A New Inventory for Assessing Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development (AHEMD-SR).Early Childhood Education Journal, 36, 5-9.
Gallahue, D. &Donnely, F. (2003).Developmental physical education for all children. Human Kinetics, Champaign.
Gallahue, D. &Ozmun, J. (1998).Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, Adults. Singapore: Mc Graw Hill.
Goran MI, Gower BA, Treuth M & Nagy TR (1998).Prediction of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in healthy pre-pubertal children.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 22, 549–558.
Malina, R.M. & Bouchard, C. (1991).Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity.Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Morrison, G. S. (1995). Early Childhood Education Today (6thed). New Jersey: A Simon & Schuster Company.
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2009).Active Start: A statement of physical activity guidelines for children birth to five years (2nd Ed). Oxon Hill, MD: AAHPERD Publications.
Rarick, G. (1973). Physical Activity: human growth and development. New York, Academic Press.
Romance, T. (1985). Observing for confidence. Journal of Physical education, Recreation & Dance, 56(7), 47-49.
Singh, A., Bains, J., Gill, J. S. &Brar, R. S. (2003).Essential of Physical education. New Delhi: Kalyan Publishers.
Singh, H. (1991). Science of Sport Training. New Delhi: DVS Publication.
Ulrich, D. A. (2000).Test of Gross Motor Development (2nded).Austin, TX; Pro-Ed, Inc.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.