Main Article Content
Green chemical science recognizes the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals (heavy metals). Innovative processes for treating industrial wastewater containing heavy metals often involve technologies for reduction of toxicity in order to meet technology-based treatment standards. This article reviews the recent developments and technical applicability of various treatments for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. A particular focus is given to innovative physico-chemical removal processes such as, adsorption on new adsorbents, membrane filtration, electrodialysis, and photocatalysis. Their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated. It is evident from survey that new adsorbents and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. However, in the near future, the most promising methods to treat such complex systems will be the photo catalytic ones which consume cheap photons from the UV-near visible region. They induce both degradation of organic pollutants and recovery of metals in one-pot systems. . In general, the technical applicability, plant simplicity and cost-effectiveness are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment for inorganic effluent.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Abu Qdaisa, H. Moussab (2004) Removal of heavy metals from wastewater by membrane processes: a comparative study Desalination, 164 (2004), pp105-110.
Ahluwalia S. S., D. Goyal (2006) Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater Bioresour. Technol, 98 (12) (2006), pp. 2243-2257.
Ahmady S.- Asbchin, (2008) Biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution by Fucus serratus: surface characterization and sorption mechanisms Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008), pp. 6150–6155.
M. Ajmal,R.Rao., R. Ahmad, J. Ahmad (2000) Adsorption studies on Citrus reticulata (fruit peel of orange) removal and recovery of Ni(II) from electroplating wastewater J. Hazard. Mater.,79 (2000), pp. 117–131.
A. Aklil,M. Mouflihb, S. Sebti (2004) Removal of heavy metal ions from water by using calcined phosphate as a new adsorbent J. Hazard. Mater., A112 (2004), pp. 183–190.
H. A. Aziz, M. N. Adlan, K. S. Ariffin (2008) Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr (III)) removal from water in Malaysia: post treatment by high quality limestone Bioresour. Technol., 99 (2008), pp. 1578–1583.
Babel, S., Kurniawan, T.A., 2004. Cr (VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modiﬁed with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan. Chemosphere 54 (7), 951–967.
Chen, Y.T., Huang, C.P., 2004. Removal of toxic cyanide and Cu (II) ions from water by illuminated TiO2 catalyst. J. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 53, 13–20. 60-67.
Mohammadi, T., Razmi, A., Sadrzadeh, M., 2004. Effect of operating parameters on Pb2+ separation from wastewater using electrodialysis. Desalination 167, 379–385.
Zhang, F.S., Itoh, H., 2006. Photocatalytic oxidation and removal of arsenite from water using slag–iron oxide–TiO2 adsorbent. Chemosphere 65 (1), 125–131.
Zuoa, W., Zhanga, G., Mengb, Q., Zhangb, H., 2008. Characteristics and application of multiple membrane process in plating wastewater reutilization. Desalination 222, 187–196.